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At Wakeel Kar, we understand that navigating the legal landscape can be complex and overwhelming. To simplify the process and provide clarity, we have compiled a list of frequently asked questions (FAQs). These questions address common concerns our clients have and aim to offer informative and accessible answers.


How do I register my marriage in Pakistan?

In Pakistan, the process of registering a marriage involves the following steps:

Nikah Nama (Marriage Certificate):

Obtain a Nikah Nama form the local Union Council office or download it online.
Fill out the form with accurate information.
Both spouses, along with witnesses, need to sign the Nikah Nama.

Select two male witnesses for the groom and two female witnesses for the bride.
Witnesses must have valid CNICs (Computerized National Identity Cards).

Attach recent photographs of both spouses with the Nikah Nama.
Submit to Union Council.

Submit the completed Nikah Nama along with the required documents to the Union Council office where the marriage took place.

The Union Council will verify the information provided in the Nikah Nama.

Once verified, both spouses and witnesses need to sign the Nikah Nama in the presence of the Union Council staff.

Pay the applicable registration fee.
Issuance of Marriage Certificate:

After completing the process, the Union Council will issue the official Marriage Certificate.

Attestation from Local Authorities (Optional):

For international use, you may need to get the Marriage Certificate attested by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or other relevant authorities.

What are the grounds for divorce in Pakistan?

 In Pakistan, the grounds for divorce are primarily governed by personal laws applicable to different religious communities. The major laws governing divorce in Pakistan are:

Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961:

Under this ordinance, a Muslim man can seek a divorce (Talaq) from his wife based on various grounds, including cruelty, desertion, failure to observe the obligatory religious duties, or if the wife has been sentenced to imprisonment for an extended period.

Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act, 1939:

This Act provides additional grounds for divorce for both husbands and wives. Grounds include cruelty, non-payment of maintenance, impotency, insanity, and more.

Christian Divorce Act, 1869:

Christians in Pakistan follow this law, and grounds for divorce include adultery, bigamy, cruelty, and desertion for two years or more.

Hindu Marriage Act, 1955:

The grounds for divorce under this act include adultery, cruelty, desertion for two years, conversion to another religion, mental disorder, and incurable leprosy.

Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1936:

Parsi marriages in Pakistan are governed by this act, and grounds for divorce include adultery, cruelty, desertion for two years, conversion to another religion, and incurable insanity.

It’s important to note that these laws are specific to different religious communities, and the grounds for divorce can vary. Additionally, legal advice is recommended for individuals seeking a divorce to understand their specific situation and the applicable laws.

How can I initiate divorce proceedings in Pakistan?

Initiating divorce proceedings in Pakistan involves several steps, and the specific process can vary depending on the personal laws applicable to your religious community. Here is a general guide:

For Muslims:
Talaq (Divorce):

A Muslim man can initiate divorce by pronouncing Talaq. This can be done in a single sitting (Talaq-e-Bid’ah) or over three menstrual cycles (Talaq-e-Sunnah).

Notice to Arbitration Council (optional):

The husband may send a written notice to the local Arbitration Council, stating the reasons for divorce. The Council can reconcile the parties within 30 days.

Registration of Divorce:

After the waiting period (iddah) following Talaq, both parties can approach the Union Council for the registration of divorce.
For Non-Muslims (Christian, Hindu, Parsi, etc.):

Legal Grounds:

Identify the legal grounds for divorce based on the applicable personal law for your religious community (Christian Divorce Act, Hindu Marriage Act, Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, etc.).

Legal Representation:

Consult with a lawyer who specializes in family law to guide you through the legal process.

Filing a Petition:

File a divorce petition in the family court, specifying the grounds for divorce and providing supporting evidence.

Notice to the Other Party:

The court will issue a notice to the other party, informing them about the divorce proceedings.

Court Hearings:

Attend court hearings as scheduled, and the court may attempt reconciliation or proceed with the divorce proceedings.

Final Decree:

If reconciliation efforts fail, and the court is satisfied with the grounds for divorce, a final decree of divorce will be issued.
General Steps for All:

Legal Assistance:

Seek legal advice to understand the specific requirements and steps based on your religious community and personal laws.


Gather necessary documents, including marriage certificates, evidence supporting grounds for divorce, and any other relevant paperwork.

Court Fees:

Pay the required court fees for filing the divorce petition.

Participation in Proceedings:

Cooperate with the legal proceedings, attend court hearings, and provide necessary information.
It’s crucial to consult with a family law attorney to ensure that you follow the correct legal procedures and meet the specific requirements based on your religious community. The guidance provided here is a general overview and may not cover all nuances of divorce proceedings in Pakistan.

What are the rights of women in inheritance in Pakistan?

 In Pakistan, the inheritance rights of women are governed by personal laws based on the religious affiliation of the individual. The primary laws that address inheritance rights in Pakistan include.

Muslim Personal Laws:

Under Islamic law, women are entitled to a share of inheritance. The Quran specifies fixed shares for close relatives, and daughters are generally entitled to half the share of sons. The specific shares depend on the relationships and circumstances.

Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act, 1939:

This act also addresses issues related to inheritance and provides certain rights to women.

Succession Certificate Act, 1889:

This law allows individuals to obtain a succession certificate, which is often required to transfer or distribute the deceased person’s property. Widows and other female heirs may apply for a succession

Protection of Women (Property Rights) Act, 2020:

This recent legislation aims to protect and enhance the property rights of women, especially in cases of inheritance. It seeks to address issues of property distribution and prevent illegal dispossession.
General Rights of Women in Inheritance:

Equal Treatment:

Women have the right to inherit property and assets, and they should be treated equally with male heirs under the relevant personal laws.
Specific Shares:

Depending on the relationship, women are entitled to specific shares of the deceased’s estate. Daughters, for example, usually receive a share that is half of what sons receive.

Protection Against Discrimination:

Laws aim to protect women against discriminatory practices in inheritance matters, ensuring they receive their rightful shares.
Right to Seek a Succession Certificate:

Widows and other female heirs can apply for a succession certificate to facilitate the legal transfer of property.

Legal Assistance:

Women have the right to seek legal assistance to ensure that their inheritance rights are protected and enforced.

It’s important to note that the application of these laws can vary, and cultural practices may sometimes affect the implementation of inheritance rights. Seeking legal advice and understanding the specific provisions of the applicable personal laws is crucial for women in Pakistan to assert their inheritance rights effectively. Legal reforms and awareness campaigns also aim to strengthen and protect the inheritance rights of women in the country.

What are my rights regarding child custody in Pakistan?

Child custody laws in Pakistan are primarily governed by personal laws based on the religious affiliation of the parents. The major personal laws applicable in Pakistan include:

Muslim Personal Laws:

Under Islamic law, the welfare of the child is a primary consideration in matters of custody. Generally, mothers have the right to custody of minor children, especially young daughters, until a specific age. Fathers are usually granted custody when sons reach a certain age.

Guardians and Wards Act, 1890:

This secular law provides a framework for matters related to the custody of children. It allows the court to appoint a guardian for a minor’s person or property and addresses issues related to the welfare of the child.

General Considerations for Child Custody in Pakistan:
Best Interests of the Child:

Courts in Pakistan prioritize the best interests of the child when deciding custody matters. Factors such as the age of the child, the child’s preference (if old enough), financial stability, and overall well-being are considered.

Mother’s Custody:

Generally, mothers are granted custody of minor children, especially daughters, until a certain age. This age can vary depending on the circumstances and the child’s welfare.

Father’s Custody:

Fathers may be granted custody of sons once they reach a specific age, but the welfare of the child remains a paramount consideration.

Guardians and Wards Court:

In cases of dispute or if the parents are unable to agree on custody arrangements, either parent can approach the Guardians and Wards Court for a custody order.

Child’s Preference:

In some cases, especially when children are of a certain age and maturity, their preferences may be considered by the court.

Legal Representation:

Seeking legal advice and representation is crucial when dealing with child custody matters. A family law attorney can guide you through the legal process and advocate for your rights.
It’s important to note that custody laws can vary based on the specific circumstances of each case and the personal laws applicable to the parents. Seeking legal advice, understanding your rights, and ensuring compliance with relevant laws are essential steps in matters of child custody in Pakistan.

How is child support determined in Pakistan?

In Pakistan, child support is typically determined based on the financial capacity of the non-custodial parent and the needs of the child. The specific procedure for determining child support can vary, and it is often addressed within the context of divorce or separation proceedings. Here are some key factors and considerations:

Agreement Between Parents:

Ideally, parents should try to reach a mutual agreement on child support. If both parties can agree on the amount and terms, it can be submitted to the court for approval.

Guardians and Wards Court:

In cases where parents cannot agree on child support, either parent can approach the Guardians and Wards Court. The court may then determine the appropriate amount based on the financial situation of the non-custodial parent and the needs of the child.

Income and Financial Capacity:

The court considers the income, financial capacity, and resources of the non-custodial parent when determining child support. This may include salary, bonuses, investments, and any other sources of income.

Child’s Needs:

The court also takes into account the specific needs of the child, including education, healthcare, housing, and other essential expenses.

Standard of Living:

The child’s right to a standard of living similar to that of the non-custodial parent is considered, ensuring that the child’s needs are adequately met.

Circumstances of the Case:

Each case is unique, and the court considers the individual circumstances of the parents and the child when making decisions about child support.

Modification of Child Support Orders:

Child support orders can be modified if there are significant changes in circumstances, such as changes in the financial situation of the parents or the needs of the child.

Legal Representation:

It is advisable for both parents to seek legal representation when dealing with child support matters. A family law attorney can provide guidance, help negotiate agreements, and represent the interests of their client in court.

It’s important to note that child support laws and procedures may be subject to change, and it’s recommended to consult with a legal professional familiar with the current laws in Pakistan. Additionally, seeking an amicable resolution through negotiation or mediation can be beneficial for both parents and the child involved.

What is "Haq Mehr" and how does it work in marriage and divorce?

“Haq Mehr,” also known as “Mehr” or “Dower,” is a fundamental concept in Islamic marriages, and it refers to the financial obligation or consideration that a husband commits to paying to his wife. It is a mandatory and essential component of the marriage contract in Islam. The payment of Haq Mehr is considered the right of the wife, and it serves as a form of financial security for her.

In Marriage,
Negotiation and Agreement:

Before the marriage contract is finalized, the amount of Haq Mehr is negotiated and agreed upon by the bride and groom. It can be a specific sum of money, assets, or any other tangible form of value.

Part of Marriage Contract:

The agreed-upon Haq Mehr is then incorporated into the marriage contract (Nikah Nama) and becomes a legally binding obligation on the husband.

Payment Timing:

The payment of Haq Mehr is typically due either immediately upon the marriage or as agreed between the parties. However, it can also be deferred to a future date, such as in the event of divorce or the death of the husband.

In Divorce,
Obligation to Pay:

In the case of divorce, the husband is obligated to pay the agreed-upon Haq Mehr to the wife, irrespective of the reason for the divorce.

Immediate Payment:

If the Haq Mehr was deferred to a future date, it becomes immediately payable upon divorce, unless otherwise specified in the marriage contract.


If the husband fails to fulfill his financial obligation regarding Haq Mehr, the wife has the right to seek enforcement through legal means, such as family courts.

Legal Recourse:

Family courts in many Muslim-majority countries, including Pakistan, recognize and enforce the payment of Haq Mehr. The wife can approach the court to seek the payment if it is not willingly provided by the husband.

Financial Security:

Haq Mehr serves as a form of financial security for the wife, providing her with a tangible and legally enforceable claim in the event of divorce or the death of the husband.

Dignity and Respect:

It emphasizes the dignity and respect that Islam accords to women by ensuring their financial protection within the marriage contract.

Legal Recognition:

Many countries with predominantly Muslim populations have laws recognizing and regulating Haq Mehr, ensuring legal recourse for women in case of non-compliance.

It’s important for individuals entering into an Islamic marriage to clearly specify the terms of Haq Mehr in the marriage contract and to understand the legal implications associated with it. Legal advice can be sought to ensure that the terms are clear, fair, and enforceable.

What is the procedure for obtaining a khula (divorce initiated by the wife) in Pakistan?

In Pakistan, Khula is a legal right granted to Muslim women allowing them to seek a divorce initiated by the wife. The procedure for obtaining Khula is outlined in the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961. Here is a general overview of the steps involved:

1. Filing a Petition:
Consult with a Lawyer:

Seek legal advice and hire a family law attorney familiar with Islamic family laws in Pakistan.

Grounds for Khula:

The wife must establish valid grounds for seeking Khula. These grounds may include cruelty, desertion, or any other reason recognized by Islamic law.

Filing the Petition:

The wife, through her lawyer, files a Khula petition in the family court where the marriage was registered or where the husband resides.

2. Arbitration Council:
Notice to Arbitration Council:

The court may send a notice to the Arbitration Council, informing them of the Khula proceedings.

Mediation Efforts:

The Arbitration Council may attempt reconciliation between the husband and wife within 90 days. If reconciliation fails, the council issues a certificate of failure.

3. Court Proceedings:
Submission of Evidence:

The wife presents evidence supporting her grounds for Khula, and the husband has the opportunity to respond.

Decree of Khula:

If the court is satisfied with the grounds and evidence, it grants a decree of Khula, dissolving the marriage.

Iddah Period:

After obtaining the Khula decree, the wife observes the waiting period (iddah), during which she cannot remarry.

4. Custody and Maintenance:
Custody of Children:

The court may address issues related to the custody of children, considering the best interests of the children.


The court may also address the issue of maintenance (financial support) for the wife and children, depending on the circumstances.
Additional Considerations:

Financial Settlement:

The court may also address financial matters, including the return of the wife’s dowry or any other financial settlement.


Either party has the right to appeal the court’s decision if they disagree with the judgment.

It’s important to note that the specific details of the Khula process may vary based on individual cases and local regulations. Seeking legal advice is crucial to understanding the nuances of the process and ensuring compliance with the law. Additionally, legal representation can help protect the rights and interests of both parties involved in the Khula proceedings.

In Pakistan, the legal rights and responsibilities of parents are primarily governed by personal laws associated with the religious beliefs of the individuals involved. Here is a general overview of the legal rights and responsibilities of parents:

1. Guardianship and Custody:

Guardianship: Both parents are considered the natural guardians of their children, and they share the responsibility for making decisions related to the child’s upbringing, education, and welfare.
Custody: In the event of separation or divorce, custody may be awarded to one parent based on the best interests of the child. The non-custodial parent typically retains visitation rights.

2. Financial Support (Maintenance):

Parents are legally obligated to provide financial support for their children. In cases of divorce or separation, the non-custodial parent may be required to pay child maintenance to contribute to the child’s upbringing, education, and well-being.

3. Education and Upbringing:

Parents have the right and responsibility to make decisions regarding the education, religious upbringing, and general well-being of their children.

4. Decision-Making Authority:

Both parents, as natural guardians, have equal rights when it comes to making major decisions affecting the child’s life, such as medical treatment, education, and religious upbringing.

5. Inheritance Rights:

Parents have rights in determining the inheritance of their children, and they may be responsible for managing the assets or property left to minors until they reach a certain age.

6. Protection and Safety:

Parents are responsible for ensuring the safety and protection of their children from harm or abuse.

7. Right to Discipline:

Parents have the right to discipline their children within reasonable limits, ensuring that discipline does not involve abuse or harm.

8. Religious Upbringing:

Parents have the right to impart religious teachings and values to their children, and decisions related to the child’s religious upbringing are typically made jointly unless otherwise specified.

9. Travel Consent:

When one parent wishes to travel internationally with the child, the consent of the other parent may be required, and legal procedures may need to be followed.

10. Legal Representation:

Parents have the right to legal representation in matters related to custody, guardianship, and any legal disputes concerning their children.

The legal framework may vary for different religious communities, such as Muslims, Christians, Hindus, and others. It is essential to consult the relevant personal laws and seek legal advice tailored to the specific circumstances.

Parents should be aware of their legal rights and responsibilities, and in case of disagreements or disputes, seeking legal advice and resolution through proper legal channels is recommended. Legal representation can help protect the rights and interests of both parents and ensure the best interests of the child are prioritized.

How can I adopt a child in Pakistan?

Adoption procedures in Pakistan are governed by different laws based on the religion of the individuals involved. Below is a general overview of the adoption process in Pakistan:

1. Muslim Adoption:
Guardianship under Muslim Personal Laws:

In Islam, full adoption is not allowed. Instead, guardianship (Kafalah) is permitted, where a child is cared for but does not take the adoptive family’s name.

Legal Process:

Consult with a lawyer to understand the legal requirements and process for guardianship under Muslim personal laws.

2. Non-Muslim Adoption:
Legal Framework:

Non-Muslims in Pakistan may adopt children through the Guardians and Wards Act, 1890.


Prospective adoptive parents must be eligible under the law, and there may be specific requirements, such as age and marital status.

Petition to the Court:

File a petition in the family court under the Guardians and Wards Act, seeking permission to be appointed as the guardian of the child.

Court Investigation:

The court may conduct an investigation to ensure that the adoption is in the best interests of the child. This may involve visits to the adoptive parents’ home and other inquiries.


Consent of the biological parents or guardians may be required, unless they have been deemed unfit or their consent is not available.

Court Order:

If the court is satisfied that adoption is in the child’s best interest, it may issue an order granting legal guardianship to the adoptive parents.


Register the court order with the concerned authorities to ensure legal recognition of the adoption.

3. International Adoption:
Compliance with Laws:

If adopting a child from abroad, ensure compliance with both Pakistani laws and the laws of the child’s home country.

Adoption Agency:

Work with a reputable adoption agency that follows legal procedures and has experience in international

Home Study:

Complete a home study as required by the adoption agency and relevant authorities.

Court Process:

Follow the legal process in Pakistan, including filing a petition in the family court and obtaining a court order for legal guardianship.

Consular Processing:

Complete any necessary consular processing for the child’s immigration and adoption recognition.
Important Considerations:

Legal Advice:

Seek legal advice from an experienced family law attorney to understand the specific requirements and procedures applicable to your case.


Ensure that all required documents, including court orders and consents, are properly prepared and submitted.

Best Interests of the Child:

The court’s primary consideration is the best interests of the child. Be prepared to demonstrate a suitable environment for the child’s upbringing.

Adoption processes can be complex, and it’s crucial to follow the legal procedures to ensure the rights and well-being of both the adoptive parents and the adopted child. Consulting with legal professionals and relevant authorities throughout the process is highly recommended.

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